CITE defines scalability as a firm’s capability to expand and meet customer demand, taking into account its supply chain configuration, costs, constraints, context and risks. Scalability is important because it creates a supply of goods, provides returns to investors, and grows the economy. Evaluation findings can provide insights into novel ideas for processes and business models.
The unit of analysis is the product distinguished by the brand and/or model, while the scalability unit of analysis are the processes which span all the parties involved in fulfilling a customer’s request (the supply chain). The supply chain can be characterised as follows:
Parties: Supplies, manufacturers, distributors, retailers, and consumers. Brand owners are typically manufacturers, but can be retailers and sometimes distributors.
Stages: Procurement (e.g. sourcing, procurement management), production (facilities, production planning), distribution (e.g. inventory echelon, warehouse management, transportation management), sales (sales channels, manufacturer representative, commercial, mission, distributor, broker), and after sales (warranty duration and type)
Flows: Material flow, financial flow and information flow
The scalability criteria for evaluating supply chains are:
Affordability (including landed cost, retail price, total cost of ownership, financing)
Accessibility (i.e. customer reach)
Availability (i.e. throughput capacity and inventory)
It can pay off to establish a culture of learning and development early on because it will sow the seeds of a company’s future success, even survival. If implemented effectively, a learning and development program can optimise the performance of the team and prepare the ‘next generation’ of leaders for the organisation, reinforce values and culture, and increase employee engagement.
The reading recommended the 70-20-10 framework of talent development, where 70% comprises experiential learning or on-the-job experiences, 20% informal training and coaching, and 10% formal training. The good news is that early-stage, resource-constrained organisations often have plenty ‘stretch assignments’ to choose from
Only 10% is spent on formal training. According to Molly Alexander, Head of Talent Development at Acumen, formal training is not a magical fix for talent development needs. The real key to success is setting up a culture where new skills are embedded into everyday routines.
Key areas for employee skill development in the social enterprise sector are:
Core competencies which are the skills that define how people get things done.
Technical skills necessary for employees to develop in service of ultimately tackling more sophisticated challenges within their functional area
Understanding of the sector and organisation in order to see the big picture.
Pluralistic ignorance occurs when many people privately condemn a behaviour but wrongly believe that their peers endorse it. This can occur because the behaviour or its consequences are visible but people do not voice their disagreement, leading to a lack of transparent communication. In such cases, updating normative expectations can help to change behaviour.
A different but related situation is when people misperceive the frequency of a behaviour (e.g. prevalance of corruption or drinking). Correcting misperceptions can change descriptive norms but not social norms.
To measure norms, you must check empirical expectations, normative expectations and whether there is a conditional preference.
Behaviour can be measured through monitors or self-reports. Personal normative beliefs can be measured through surveys, and it is important to distinguish between prudential and non-prudential beliefs.
If empirical and normative expectations are mutually consistent, it is PROBABLE that there is a norm, but it could also signal a moral rule. Therefore it is necessary to check whether preferences are conditional. This is done by varying empirical and normative expectations and checking whether behaviour changes, through direct hypotheticals or vignettes.
You can also measure how stable a norm is by assessing which expectation has more weight. For example, when empirical and normative expectations diverge, empirical expectations usually dominate.
Thus, through systematic measure, you can diagnose whether a behaviour is a custom, moral rule or true social norm, and whether the social norm has causal relevance.
In water treatment (and in life), the question is what level of risk is acceptable. WHO defines safe drinking water as water that presents no significant risk to health over a lifetime of consumption.
The water safety framework comprises health-based targets, water safety plans and verification. Health-based targets include performance measures in terms of log reduction values.
It is important to note that measuring water quality is not the same as water safety because water quality varies in space and time, and no E.coli does not mean no contamination. Multiple treatment barriers should be put in place to remove contaminants.
Health-based targets include performance measures in terms of log reduction values. Water quality measurement does not mean water safety because water quality is variable in space and time, and no E.coli does not mean no contamination
Water treatment options: Sedimentation and filtration
A household-level treatment process typically comprises sedimentation, filtration, disinfection and safe storage.
Sedimentation removes turbidity (suspended particles in water), and some pathogens. Turbidity itself has no health risks, but has impacts on subsequent treatment steps. Mechanisms include gravity settling, and coagulation and flocculation.
Membrane filtration works on size exclusion, electrostatic effects and biological activity.
Ceramic filters work on physical and electrostatic removal. It is common to brush silver onto filters, which contributes to bacteria reduction and prevents biofilm growth and clogging.
Biosand filtration also uses size exclusion, electrostatic effects and biological activity.
CITE considers technology evaluation through the lenses of suitability (how well a product performs), scalability (how well a product reaches a customer) and sustainability (how a user and a product interact over time).
Developing a set of evaluation metrics
Metrics guides decision-making and focuses the evaluation effort. Good metrics are measurable, relevant, apply broadly across the product family, understandable, and reliable. It is recommended to have 7-12 metrics.
Lab or field?
Lab tests are usually more precise and repeatable, and more objective. The lecture recommends using lab tests when fine discrimination among alternatives are needed, and using field tests is unbiased estimates of actual performance in a particular setting are needed.
Low-cost sensors, such as thermometers, can provide valuable information. Sensors are beneficial because of its persistence and long duration of observation, allowing for high sampling frequencies. Ethical considerations include privacy and possible harm to the user. The user might also alter their behaviour if they are aware of the presence of the sensor. Note that sensors may not always be appropriate depending on the circumstances.
Preference is a disposition to act in a certain way. It is different to liking or endorsing something.
Conditional preferences means that a choice is dependent on empirical expectations (descriptive norms) or both empirical and normative expectations i.e. if different expectations lead to different behaviour, then people have conditional expectations. It is important to note that consistency between social expectations and behaviour does not mean that the behaviour is influenced by expectation.
Whether people have conditional preferences influences the intervention that is designed. If people have conditional preferences, the intervention should focus on changing social expectations.
A social norm is a rule of behaviour such that people prefer to conform to the norm conditional on empirical and normative expectations. Under social norms, there are usually informal social sanctions that motivate compliance. Hence the presence of sanctions indicate that there are normative expectations. However, some people might comply without sanctions if they believe that other people’s normative expectations are legitimate.
(If empirical expectations were sufficient to motivate compliance, this would be a descriptive norm. )
Motivations for behaviour differ from community to community. Bicchieri provides a useful visual summary for diagnosing whether a behaviour is a custom/rule, descriptive norm or social norm.
There are many diseases caused by poor water, sanitation and hygiene. In particular, diarrhea is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity.
Diseases related to poor water, sanitation and hygiene can be classified according to its transmission pathways: waterborne, water-washed, water-based and water-related. This is the Bradley classification, and informs the selection of appropriate control mechanisms.
These diseases are caused by pathogens that can be described by its biological type: protozoa, bacteria, viruses and helminths. These are transmitted through pathways illustrated by the F-diagram.
Because it is impractical to measure all pathogens, faecal indicators area used. Escherichia coli (E.coli) is generally considered the most suitable, although it does not necessarily co-relate to contamination risk. A more complete picture can be obtained by also doing a sanitary inspection. Contamination can occur at the point of the water resource, delivery, collection and transport, household storage, and consumption.
Household water treatment offers the opportunity to remove contamination that occurs before consumption. Treatment processes include sedimentation (pre-treatment), filtration, boiling, UV radiation (solar disinfection) and chlorine. Each process has different levels of effectiveness and different applications.