Summary of Video #13 of Crash Course Sociology.
Nature is the part of human behaviour that is biologically determined and instinctive. Whereas nurture is behaviour based on the people and environment you are raised in. Socialisation is the process through which we develop our personalities and learn about our society and culture. Social isolation can affect a children’s ability to develop language skills, social skills and emotional stability.
Many theories of how we develop personalities, cognitive skills, and moral behaviour, come from psychologists, for example:
- Sigmund Freud’s id, ego and superego. His theories has influenced many people who researched human personality.
- Jean Piaget proposed four stages of cognitive development: sensorimotor; preoperational; concrete operational, and; concrete operational.
- Lawrence Kohlberg expanded on Piaget’s model to incorporate stages of moral development: preconventional; conventional, and; post-conventional. Carol Gilligan realised that Kohlberg’s study only had male subjects. Subsequently, she found that boys tended to emphasis formal rules to define right and wrong (justice perspective) while girls tended to emphasise interpersonal reasoning (care and responsibility perspective). She argue that these differences stemmed from cultural conditioning.
- George Herbert Mead said that we figured out how we are through social interaction through: imitation; play, and; game.
The above theories focused on childhood, but Erik Erikson came up with an 8-stage model that extended to old age, focusing on key challenges of each period of life.